Westminster Export Models
by Elias Blum
The Westminster Model as actually practiced at Westminster is the sort of undocumented pre-release prototype. It’s got a lot of loose ends and historical quirks that have just never been fixed, which make it messy and clunky.
If you want to see the Westminster Model in its advanced form, you have to look at the Export Variants. It would be better to read, say, the Constitution of India or even that of Ireland – which are 20th century systematisations of the key elements of the Westminster system, adapted to different national contexts.
It’s interesting that the Westminster model, in its essentials, can exist with a written constitution, judicially-enforced rights, elected second chamber, federalism, republican head of state, even proportional representation, and yet still be recognisable in its basic functioning and dynamics .